A separate board could be made to plus into the PCDuino line, a FPGA, or frankly almost any smartphone processor. Or tie it to a MIPI to USB bridge, although I wonder what latency that may have.
On the other end of the spectrum is TI's 3D imagers.
http://www.ti.com/lsds/ti/sensors/3d-im ... ducts.page
While I really like the QVGA model (although the complexity may make it more difficult), the really new 80x60 model is more integrated. Fully documented, easier to deal with soldering, needs an external laser or LED for illumination, plus a standard lens mount. This also looks like it could actually work with a Cortex M3 or M4 processor easily. You could technically tie it to an Arduino, but I'd rather do some data driving with a Cypress PSOC5. Especially at a possible 1000FPS. IT's so new that promised documentation and process calculators are not available on the TI website yet.